Every school and collage has its debating society which arranges debates, quiz, talent shows speaking both In English and Urdu and sports activities In order to prepare students for the practical life. Besides, schools and colleges there are other Associations and society which also arrange debates.
Debating societies serve many useful purposes. These societies sharpen the Intellect of those who participate In the discussion. Before putting their arguments for or against the subject under debates. They are deeply to think which points will be of substantial help to their stand. This invariably sharpens their Intellect and increase their power of thinking.
These debating societies are useful to students of the schools and collages as a special case; The young girls and boys who attend their educational institutions, need a common, platform (In order to take parts In Quiz, speeches, national songs, stage dramas and other sports activities) from which they can discuss venous types of views, points and situations In order to fulfill the demand of the debates and competitions. Shyness, hesitancy and fear are removed when they come on the stage or a platform and speak. In the beginning they may face and experience some difficulties but as the time went on (passes on) they soon become able, courageous to speak fluently and discuss freely.
The debating societies are of the special importance to students in cultivating the power of advancing argument who participates, want that his side should carry the day, he is their face, required to convince the audience so that they may take side of him, in case of division is called for. In order to gain favor, corroboration, support and seconding, convincing arguments are must. The participants should therefore make it a point to win the hearts of the audience by convincing appeal to their intellect. The discussing of debating societies throws a flood of light on the subject under consideration by examination all the parts for and against the muttons.
When we take parts in debates, when we speak on opposite sides of questions we learn to tolerate other people’s views and opinions. We become broad mind. Moreover, in a debate we have to be quick in thinking. Thus debating societies is sharping the wits is and strengthening the intellectual powers of a person. Debates are arranged on the variety of the subjects and we are given an opportunity to listen to the arguments in favour or against the new topics. Discussion in debating societies have often proved quite helpful for the society as well the government in solving many of their difficulties and puzzling problems. Some of the member if debating societies may become great public speakers and operators or the member of the legislative assembles and parliaments of their country.
“It is correct that debates sharpen the intellect of the participants either they are students or the others, and the power of speaking is increased”


Think of the terrorist as a cancer cell that might help to reframe, lf not answer, the agonized questions we keep asking ourselves. What constitutes a terrorist? What madness, what violent range, can cause human being to turn himself? Into a bomber, killing himself along with his targeted victims, as well as innocent bystanders? What chemistry of misplaced idealism of reutilization of spirit can create? Such a fury in the blood? More importantly, how do us the civilized, the law abiding, protect ourselves from such an implacable nemesis?
Such question has been asked before and will now be asked again with renewed urgency, is the terrorist Insane? ·If so, how do we defend ourselves against his Insanity? Is he a self-styled martyr seeking self actualization?
Conventional methods of defense armaments and stringent anti-terrorist laws don’t seem to work. If anything, they make matters worse. Whether it is Palestine, Sri Lanka, New York City, Kashmir and now Karachi. The fireball of terrorism seems able to erupt at will and if seemingly quenched in one spot, it bursts out another with recrudescent ferocity, No “Enduring Freedom" no National Missile Defense, no USA Patriot Act can provide a remedy for terrorism. And the more technological advanced and interlinked the global community becomes, the more vulnerable it is to terrorist attack. The World Trade Center holocaust was directly aided and abetted by high density sky scraper architecture; the Anthrax scare by the development of the virus by US laboratories in the 1950s.
Terrorism is not born in vacuum. We breed the terrorism we suffer, as we breed the disease of cancer in our bodies, Cancer, like cancer disease, is a life style manifestation. We cause our own cancer by creating a life style, an environment that is carcinogenic. We smoke, we drink, Increase our stress loads, then when the Big C hits us, we wonder why. How could it happen to me?
Think of terrorism as the political equivalent of cancer. If the International community has, In various trouble spots, created an environment where Individuals or group have In fact or perception been Increasingly marginalized, politically, socially, or economically, It has laid the foundation for the genesis of ideological cancer cells, which will grow, and spread, and metastasis and spring up In unexpected parts of the world: stamp it out In Afghanistan, it can flare In Jerusalem, of Chechnya or Washington or London or Karachi.
Like medical cancer, terrorist cancer can metamorphose into different terrorist From of the same disease. The links between different terrorist groups In different parts of the world and with ostensibly different agendas is well established. lf terrorism is Indeed a life-style disease, neither the political equivalent of the scalpel or of chemotherapy, nether military action nor draconian legislative counter assault will be of much help. Unless the disease is surgically rooted out In It’s entirely --- a near Impossibility considering the collusive nature of the quarry--- It will crop up again. Chemotherapy in the from of ordnances like USA Patriot, will only circumscribe democratic space without enhancing security.
Prevention, by way of life-style adjustments and regular checkups, is said to be the best cure for medical cancer. Those responsible for the health of our polity might do worse than take a leaf of such prescriptions. Go beyond the symptoms, find out what you Live so as not to encourage the growth of the disease. Have your check-ups, gather Intelligence, and take appropriate remedial action in the affected area. Most importantly, change the conditions which cause such malignant growths, like the light against cancer, the flight against the big “T” requires courage, stamina, the capacity to withstand pain and, most of all, faith. Faith that we can beat it because we must. For lf we don’t, it will beat us, by turning us Into Itself.


The standard of education in Pakistan is falling In a Continual manner due to locks of meaning and purpose. The planning for its developments battement and worth-while standard always remains up to in papers only.
Our education system has been divided into three stages i.e. Primary, Secondary and Higher Secondary (University) education but there is coordination among these sections. The Head of the Institutions do not tape interest in performing these respective duties honestly properly and with trust. They do not take active part to teach the students and to raise the standard of education. There heads do not actually check their duties especially In college where the lecturers in some college spend most of their time in smoking and reading Newspapers In the staff rooms or in the libraries. Moreover these heads of Institutions miserably to fall to develop the working conditions of their institutions organizations such as teaching standard games, sports and other extra curricular activities, attendance and discipline As a result of there grass negligence the students are misguided by the social and political educations and even the fall prey to drug mafia agents.
Students they days are not taking keen interest in their studies attentively and fairly because for slackness being allowed in the examinations. Why should they undergo the pain of study when the door of un-pair means is wide open to them? Students having nobody to care for them no depend upon openly on notes, keys ready made answers and they are neither thought the text Books by their teachers non they are asked to porch such books of their syllabi.
Such type of immortal factors students has started the mean spirited practice of unfair means in the exanimations and disrespectful attitude towards the invigilators of the examinations hall. The whole process (system) of the examination or the education in our country needs a drastic over hauling change lf we want the students of education of educator imposed.


There is no place upon the face of the earth where people do not sing and where music is not treated as an art. Excepting only a. few, all the others love music and think it as a part and parcel of their life. No music, no refinement, no culture so they think.
In the primitive age when man had no learning, no culture, when he was as wild as the other wild and ferocious animals, he sang- he sang to give out his mind, to express his feelings, whether of joy or sorrow. Music was his language in and through which he expressed how he felt. He heard the clouds thunder, saw the waves howl and found all nature expressing itself in thousand and one ways. This made him wild in an excess of feeling and he sang- sang out of the gladness of his heart.
How old music is, nobody can say. The history of human civilization has a long record of music. It is said about Orpheus that when he played on his flute, even the beasts and birds assembled to hear him. It is narrated in the Bible that when King Saul was possessed of ghosts and lost his consciousness, David restored it by playing on his harp.
The definition of music can be gathered from what has been said above. Music is nothing but a succession of harmonious sounds, vocal or instrumental. So a song (solo
or chorus) comes under the category of music as does an instrumental concert. We may briefly say that any kind of melodious sounds, producing a pleasing effect upon the mind may be termed as music.
Music has appeal to the feelings. It rouses our feelings and emotions and make us forget our joys and sorrows so long as we listen to it. Its poetic jingling and measured tunes stir the inmost depths of our heart and make us one with them. It wields enormous power on our heart which nothing else can. This power of music made the children of Hamelin dance in thrilling joy and disappears with the Pied Piper, leaving their all behind. It is said that some wild animals like the tiger and the deer and even the venomous serpent are moved by music.
The kinds of music are many and various. Of these mention may be made of only some. The martial music stirs the patriotic feelings of men and even causes them to leave their hearth and home and go to the battle-field court death; religious songs make us-pure, honest and religious-minded; the pathetic songs bring tears to our eyes, the love-songs enthrall our heart with feelings for union or separation.
Music, as has been pointed out before; touches the softest cords of our heart. It is the food for our heart in our joys and sorrows: it satisfies the heart-hunger of all. This is why it is an object of endearment to all and is cultivated all over the world.


A man lives for himself. He thinks and acts to make his own self secure, comfortable and happy. His natural instinct of self-preservation makes him behavior this way. But he becomes truly human only when he tries to make others secure, comfortable and happy. To go beyond one’s own self and serve others is social service. Such statements as“To serve humanity is to serve God” and “Service before Self”, bring out the importance of social service.
Social service is a duty. From birth to death, individual man goes on receiving things from society. He is indebt to society. it is clearly his duty to try to pay up this debt, to return what he had received of course, the debt is so heavy that it can never be fully paid up. Social service is a way of giving back to society a tiny portion of what one has taken from it. The world is full of poverty, disease, and suffering. There are opportunities for social service everywhere. To raise a fallen man is a social service, to help an old lady out of a bus is social service to take a blind man across a road is social service. Such acts put sunshine into a dark life.
There are many inspiring examples of social and humanitarian service. Florence Nightingale, the Lady of the Lamp, gave a new turn to nursing by her selfless service to the sick and dying. Madam Curie dedicated by her life to the task of making science serves mankind. Damien died a leper in the service of lepers. Albert Schweitzer gave up a bright career and spent his whole-life serving the ailing in French Equatorial Africa. Jean Henri founded the Red Cross organization but died a poor man. Baden Powell, though dead, is still serving the world, through the Boys Scout Movement. Even our self-interest should make us serve others. For we rise or fall with our society Individual happiness depends upon social happiness. If everyone tries to make everyone else happy, everyone will find himself made happy. If we all stop throwing banana skins on roads, no one will break his bones thr`ot1gh a banana-skin.
Finally, social service is a great educational discipline. It lifts us out of our petty selves. It elevates our minds, hearts and spirit. It is spiritual training. It makes our lives richer and fuller. It gives us profound spiritual satisfaction and makes-us really and truly-happy. There is no greater happiness than the happiness that comes to us through the happiness of others.


The saying “Uneasy lies the head that wears a crown” occurs in Shakespeare’s drama. In modern days "The head that wears a crown" stands for person who occupies a position of authority and power. The life of the head of state is not a bed of roses. In fact, it is a burden of responsibilities. If is become the head of the state of Pakistan, I shall leave no stone unturned to convert it into a welfare state based upon the lofty principles of Islam.
A really responsible person has very little time to think for himself. He is all the time concerned with the comforts and well being of those who are dependent on him. On becoming the head of the state I shall consider myself as a servant of my countrymen and not their master. I shall work with all sincerity for the progress and prosperity of the country. But this is not an easy task to achieve. Firstly, shall improve the administration of the country. Appointments will be made purely on the basis of merit. Inefficient and corrupt officers will have no place in my administration. Bribe and corruption in administration will be severely dealth with. For the proper implementation of my plans I shall have to choose with great care and caution a devoted and selfless team of ministers and high officers.
My administration will give top priority to the economic development of the country. My aim will be to wipe out poverty from Pakistan. For this purpose large scale reforms will be-introduced in all sectors of economic activities. Mechanized farming on a large scale will be adopted throughout the country so that Pakistan may become self sufficient in food. Growth of industries will be encouraged. The natural resources and manpower of the country shall be fully exploited. I shall ban the import of all articles of luxury. Simple living will is popularized. Economic justice will be done to all.
Education will receive due attention of my government. I shall make all possible efforts to wipe out illiteracy from the country. Technical and scientific education will be given top priority. Education will be made free upto Intermediate level. For making and shaping of a well developed society, basic and higher education is the sheet anchor for the people.
It will be my endeavour to make Pakistan a truly Islamic state where justice will be done to all irrespective of caste, creed or colour. Judiciary will be made quite in dependent of the executive. Law and order will be maintained throughout the country at all cost. Efforts will be made to better the police administration. Criminals will be severally dealth with. Freedom of speech will be granted. Press will be made free.
In short, I shall do my best to make Pakistan a safe abode for all where peace, progress and prosperity will prevail.


Good friends are rare in this world. We have several acquaintances but a few friends. This is so because real friendship is a complex thing made up of several things. It is rarely that we get such a combination of things in human beings. A disinterested friend is rare.
Man is a social animal. He cannot live alone. He needs companions. Friendship is, therefore, the- basis on which a society has been built up. It is such a company which makes a man perfect. Friendship is a wonderful experience. It is a blessing. A person without friends is an unfortunate being. He is either an unsocial or abnormal person.
Friendship makes our life joyous and pleasant. All of us need friends to console us when we are unhappy, to cheer up when we are depressed and to help us when we are in need and to be with us when we are happy. The joys of friendship are many with a small set of good friends around, one feels at home in this world. A friendless person is always lonely and sad. He cannot see much meaning in the life around him.
The selection of a true-friend is really very difficult perhaps this has become more difficult with the advancement of material values in our society. The age of material values has made a man selfish. But true friendship is free from all selfishness. He is interested in your welfare and happiness. He does his best to help you. You don’t have to ask him for help. But if he is not aware of your difficulties you feel no hitch in telling him. Friendship flourishes on mutual trust. When that is missing there is something wrong with friendship. A good friend is prepared to sacrifice his own interest for the sake for his friend. Selfish men can never him a good friend. In friendship, as in love, you give. You don’t withhold. If you do so you are not a good friend.
There are quarrels even among good friends. But these quarrels are not always the end of friendship. A good friend’s attitude to these quarrels is generous. Sometimes there is serious misunderstanding. He tries to remove them through a frank discussion. Borrowing, it is believed, is ruinous to friendship it is perhaps true. But can one avoid borrowing from a friend if one is in need! A friend in need is a friend indeed.
Friendship is a spiritual relationship. The harmony we find between two friends is spiritual harmony. Happiness lies in getting together. A good friend is, in short, a rare possession and one must thank God if one get a really good friend.


A good citizen is one who knows his rights and duties as a citizen. He asserts his rights and performs his duties with equal zest. His rights infect imply his duties. In all
democracies an individual enjoys political as well as civic rights. Political rights consists of right to vote, right to freedom of expression and faiths right to movement etc, Civic rights are of as vital importance as the political rights. This enables an individual to live in a civilized manner.
A good citizen defends his political and civic rights very zealously. The state helps him in that through law and justice. Violation of these rights is often punishable by law. We must know that rights and duties are correlative. One’s right implies an others duty and vice versa. This correlation is never lost sight of by a good citizen. A citizen is free to organize his life as he like. Technically the position may be all right. But in actual practice there are many checks on one’s freedom. I cannot build a house any where I like. I cannot build it in the way I like. I must conform to the municipal byelaws. These laws have been framed in accordance with certain common considerations. I cannot throw the refuse of my house anywhere I like. I cannot walk in the middle of the road. I cannot blow a trumpet at midnight. If I have the right to do it, my neighbors have the right to sleep peacefully. If I am a good citizen, I will impose some discipline on myself.
As a member of society, a good citizen has certain obligations. Illiteracy, poverty, superstition, disease and a host of other problems demand the attention of a good Citizen. He has to think about these and their evils. He must give his best to the society. He must not let his energies and talents go waste. It will be social loss.
A good citizen, normally speaking, respects law. If he is liable to be taxed he pays it. He does not evade taxes bees us evil is a crime as well as a sin. He knows that his own good is linked with the good of others. He does not there fore indulge in dishonest practices. He does not try to influence their government officials for his private ends. He does not offer bribes.
An ignorant or a selfish man can never be a good citizen if he is ignorant he does not know which rights to defend and which d11ties-to perform. If he is timid, he lacks the courage to defend any encroachment on his rights. If he is selfish, he lacks the generosity to respect other’s convenience and comfort.


The ideal of a good and perfect life is to have a sound mind in a sound body. This is recognized by all as the best means of performing our duties. Body and mind should work at their best, and they cannot do so unless both are in good order. The limbs must be- supple, active and obedient to the will. The best way to keep the limbs fit is to exercise them in sports and games of physical skill and strength.
This indeed is the importance of games, there is no society, which has not its own special kinds of games. The proper end of game is bodily health arid physical fitness. In the past, sports like hunting and fishing used to be mainly utilitarian in purpose, That is to say, men used to hunts in order to get food. But with the dawn of the Greek Civilization, sports and games came to be looked upon as a means of building up the body beautiful. The famous Olympic Games, held every fourth year, were proof of importance given to sports and games. Theses have been revived from 1896, and are now held once in four years at various centers.
Sports and games have now come to stay in our civilization as an essential feature of human activity, and their object is not merely fun, they also instill the sprit of discipline and team-work. Game like cricket, hockey and foot ball are popular because of the sprit of team work which they inspire. This no doubt true. The discipline that gained in playing up games is invaluable in later life. It makes for a life of co-operation and team work which could be used for building up a great society and a nation.
Our young man and woman should take active part in sports and games. It is good that our .educational institution encourage sports and games by organizing matches and awarding prizes and trophies. The habit of taking part in games and sports is good in severa1 ways. Apart from making us strong, healthy and fit, it teaches us how to use our energy in the right way. But all good things sometimes become bad. This is a strange but the true fact about human activities. Sports and games should be so organized that they will not interfere with studies of our youth. Life is not all sports. They are only a part, though a very important part.


By the term discipline is meant according to rules. rule is a standard or principle laid down for guiding action, behavior, etc, The term discipline therefore, means that all our actions should be done in perfect accordance with certain principle or rules laid down for guiding us in the right path. So discipline leads to harmony or order whereas indiscipline leads to confusion or disorder.
Discipline is the key-note of the worldly order. In other words, the universe rests on discipline. The planets do not collide with one another but move along their orbits according to rules there are flood tide and ebb-tide in the sea according to rules; bodies left unsupported fall to the ground according to rules;- the air blows, the river flows, the flower blooms, the fruits ripen and- fall all according to rules. If there were no observance of rules, the world would have been a veritable hell of chaos and confusion. If the mother did not look after the children, if the children did not obey their parents, if the people did not obey the laws of the country, the world would have been a melting pot.
Discipline should be maintained in every walk of life. At home we are to observe discipline. We cannot rear up good children, if there is no discipline. A house, where there is no discipline, is just like a hell. So discipline should be enforced on children at home. They should be made to feel that discipline is a blessing and indiscipline is a curse, that the one leads to and prosperity whereas the other leads to unhappiness and disgrace. The home, infect is the first place to teach the value of discipline.
The discipline instilled into the character of the child at home is further improved in the educational institution Here everything takes place according to rules. The classes meet according to schedule, and according to schedule the students pass or fail according to rules; everything here rest on discipline. And punishment is given to those who go astray or are indiscipline. No life is worth living and is of any value which is not orderly and disciplined.
Coming out of their educational institutions, they enter the world of practical life. Here the same discipline with greater rigor dominates all human activities. Those who obey rules and conduct their life accordingly are happy but those who violate are unhappy and suffer.
Discipline works everywhere. It controls or physical movements and activities; it controls our morals and even or religion. There is no sphere in heaven and earth where discipline does not dominate.


We live in an age of advertisement - A world of artful advertisement - A vital necessity - It provides information and knowledge - It is- highly scientific - A source of employment to many.
Our newspapers and- magazines are full of advertisements. The radio broadcasts advertisements. We see advertisements on television. The cinema flashes advertisements on the silver-screen. We find advertisements on area-railing, building-walls, shop-fronts, electric-posts, trolleys, trucks, railway station and airport. Advertisement balloons roar high up in the sky. Sometimes advertisements are produced like a film on clouds. Indeed, we live in an age of advertisement.
Mr. J.B: Priestly says that ours is “a world of artful Advertisement”. He does not like these advertisements. They do not believe in perfect life, a life which is all goodness, truth and beauty. And yet we are somehow taken in by our extravagant and exaggerating advertisements. Our newspapers and magazines are full of advertisements which promise us perfect life with their goods. But we cannot have this perfect life. The goods turn out to be frauds, We are disillusioned. The perfect life is spread out before us every day but it changes and Withers at a touch. We are led to expect perfection. We do not find it. We feel foiled.
But in these days of competition advertisement are a vital necessity. Trade and industry have expanded. Our wants have increased considerably. Thousands of things are made. Thousands of things are needed. With out advertisements, producers would not be able to bring their goods to the notice of consumers. Consumers would not be able to know where to find the things they want. Employers and intending employees require the help of advertisements. So do owners of cinema houses and circus proprietors and exhibition managers and all others who wish to attract clients for what they have to offer?
Advertisements are important from the point of view of information and knowledge. If we read them carefully, we come to know what the world is making and how it is progressing. Our knowledge increases. We acquire the power of discrimination and judgment. We become practical and worldly wise.
Modern advertising is no hypocritical humbug. It is a highly scientific art and a highly artistic science. It studies human nature. It produces most pleasing and attractive advertisements. These advertisements catch our eyes. They breakdown our sales resistance. They tempt us and impel us to buy things even when we do not really need them. They are an industry in and by themselves. They yield much needed money to newspapers and magazine. They provide employment to thousands of writers, artists, craftsmen and office workers.


Introduction - Different kinds of libraries · Personal, public and institutional - importance of library -Conclusion.
The root-meaning of the word library is a room or building containing a collection of books for reading. But as there are now circulating or travelling libraries in many countries, the world has undergone a change in its meaning. By the word now indicated a collection of books for reading or reference;
There are kinds of libraries personal, public and institutional.
A personal library is one which belongs to a private person, generally of sufficient means. Such libraries grow out of such person’s taste for knowledge and, sometimes, for fashion. There are, of course, small scale private libraries owned by solvent lawyers, educationists and persons of literary taste. But such libraries contain books on some particular subject or subjects chosen according to the taste and interest of their owners.
A public library is one which is open to the public. In order to cater to the taste and interest of all classes of people, a public library has to contain books on different subjects and varieties. Such libraries may be seen in large numbers in every country. Most of these libraries are managed or subsidized by their states. The British Museum library of London and the Central library of Moscow are instances of public libraries. Again, many such libraries have been set up in England and America by philanthropic people like Mr. Carnegie, the American millionaire.
An institutional library is one which belongs to an institution such as a university, a college, a school, a chamber of commerce, a club or a governmental department. Such a library is open to the members of the institution concerned and, therefore, generally contains hooks which are needed by them most.
As acquisition of knowledge depends mostly on reading, man has to read as necessarily as he has to eat. It adds to what he has already learnt and makes him strong and fit for rude battle of life. But for financial difficulties most of the persons who are keen on reading cannot purchase the books they need to read. Hence arises the importance of libraries. Had there been no libraries, both public and institutional, such persons would have been deprived of their reading. The teachers and the students, in like manner, would be badly affected if their institutions had no libraries of their own.
Libraries attract people to read and thus create the habit of reading and- stimulate the thirst for more and more knowledge. But for the libraries, there would be no authors, no poets, and no thinkers. The libraries thus help in the advancement of learning and expansion of knowledge.
The library has another very important use. No research work is possible without a well equipped library containing valuable books of all ages, rare manuscripts and old records. A library of this type is thus of incalculable help in throwing light on unearthed subjects. Time passes in an unbroken continuity as does the water of the river. The books of the libraries are a record of this continuity. They thus enable us to know how human society has developed in thought and action step by step.


Pakistani beggars - Its causes, a wide spread profession, half hearted anti-beggar campaign, ignorance and emotion of the people - Provisions should be made for the blind and dumb -Conclusion.
The Pakistani beggar is not a pauper but a well-paid professional. We often hear of dead beggars who have left thousands of rupees behind them. Beggary is an offence in Pakistan as it is in every other civilized country. Yet here it is allowed to be a thriving profession. We see beggars every-where. We see them in narrow, streets, public highways, outside luxurious hotels, on railway platforms, inside trains, outside mosques, in front of law courts. We see them singly or in groups. There are a1l sorts of them ugly, diseased, deformed, blind, deaf-mute, lame, leprous. They area horrible sight. Why are these lawless people allowed to move about freely? Why is no effort made to stop them from being a public nuisance and danger? There are three reasons.
First, beggary is a very well-organized and wide-spread profession. It evil far too big for any ordinary remedy. It cannot be removed easily. The most cunning criminal brains are behind it. Among beggars there are thieves, robbers, kidnappers, spies, killers, and so on. They are not afraid of the law. The law shuts its eyes to them. They carry on their activities efficiently and fearlessly.
Secondly, the municipal, police and government authorities are not- quite determined in their anti-beggar campaign. They just put up notices and stick up posters and issue warnings to alms-givers., They appear to be weak, helpless and inactive.
Thirdly, the people are ignorant, emotional and superstitious. They do not understand the dangers of giving-alms to beggars. The more wretched a beggar looks, the bigger the alms. No wonder the beggars try to look most wretched. They kidnap infants, make them blind, and deform them. They receive generous alms through these poor babies or kids.
There will always be people in all communities who will have to depend upon others for their maintenance. These people are the blind, the dumb and otherwise disabled unfortunates. But in a well ordered society, they will not to be left to beg. They will be given self-respecting jobs by adequate training for independent earning.
Begging cannot be removed overnight. It requires time, patience and wise leadership.


Introduction - it sharpens the intellect of the participants - Power of speaking is increased - Conclusion.
To debate is to talk about a question, giving reasons for and against. A debating society is, therefore, a collection of persons to talk about a question, which is often of a controversial nature, giving reasons for and against it. Thus the persons of a debating society divide themselves into two groups, one supporting or saying in favor of the question or point at issue and the other opposing or saying against it. The utility of a debating society shows itself in various ways as stated below.
Debating societies sharpen the intellect of those who participate in the discussions. Before putting their arguments for or against the subject under debate, they are deeply to think which points will be of substantial help to their stand. This invariably sharpens their intellect and increases their power of thinking.
Such societies increase the power of speaking of the participants. Every one of them tries to be at his best. In order to achieve this, he is required-to .be most careful in using words, expressions and sentences in the most effective way and as a result of this his power of speaking is considerably enriched.
Debating societies help in thinking logically. Incoherent speech containing incoherent or illogical arguments falls flat on the audience. In order to make his speech adequately, effective, every participant is to think logically and put forward his arguments logically.
These societies are helpful in making the participants to give up their habit of digression. Sometimes a speaker goes out of track and starts speaking beyond the subject matter. This is against the basic principle of debating. The participants are, therefore, always to be alert that they do not say more than what is necessary.
Debating societies are helpful in cultivating the power of advancing arguments forcefully and convincingly. Every participant wants that his side should carry the day. He is therefore required to convince the audience so that they may side with him in case division is called for Mere vociferation without convincing arguments cannot win a case. The participants should, therefore, make it a point to win the heart of the audience by a convincing appeal to their intellect.
The discussion of debating societies throw a flood of light on the subject under consideration by examine all the points for and against the motions, Discussions in debating societies have often helped the society and the government in solving many of their difficult and puzzling problems. The U.N.O., which is the biggest debating society, solves the world problems just in the manner as we do in our petty debating societies.


The charms and pleasures of domestic life - The joys of home compared with other joys of life - Home is a school for acquiring- noble virtues - The pleasant associations of home - The real charms of home heightened by imagination.
The charms and pleasures of domestic life are known to every one just go out to another town to see your relative, and there you will be secretly pining for your home, sweet home. You will remember the delightful evenings you passed around the fireside. It will be delightful to recall the scene of your father returning home after his day’s work, the children climbing on his knee; the mother preparing the evening meal and your sisters, talking of sweet innocent things; The kindly neighbors drop in helping to pass the evening hours merrily with their pleasant and cheerful conversation.
These homely joys may at first sight seem to be some what commonplace. · But as we grow older we find that they are the true sources of happiness. The joys given by wealth, rank, position and fortune, are short lived; they soon pass away. But the joys of domestic life are of a permanent nature. They always remain with us. A kind father,
an affectionate mother, a sympathetic brother, a loving wife, a dutiful son, a devoted, obedient daughter fill our life with cheerfulness. Rank; wealth and fame are not within the reach of all, thy come only to those who are fortunate. But these domestic joys can be enjoyed even by the poorest laborer. While the pleasures given by wealth, position and fame are of an exciting nature and make our soul weary of the world, the serene joys of domestic happiness soothe our very soul and bring us peace, contentment, and cheer fullness.
But it is not for these joys alone that our home is to be valued. A home is often-the best school for acquiring the noble virtues of honesty, truthfulness, faithfulness, sincerity, obedience, sympathy, self-sacrifice, and self-denial. We imitate the actions of our parents and relatives. From them we learn to be sympathetic, obedient and true to others. The unselfish devotion with which the mother serves her husband and children and the wonderful self-denial which the father displays in daily life are noble examples of the highest virtues. Self-control, the noblest of all virtues, is largely a result of home influences.
Most of our pleasant associations are often connected with our homes. For it was there that most of us spent the happy days of our childhood and youth. Imagination clothes these scenes with loveliness and throws a charm of romance over them. So it is that, wherever we may roam, there is no place like home.


By a garden is meant a piece of land for growing fruits, vegetables and flowers, Fruits satisfy our physical needs, but flowers give us aesthetic pleasure.
Gardening has been in vogue since the days a of Adam.
When, for disobedience, he was driven out of heaven, God said that he would have to labour hard to earn his livelihood. So when Eve span at home, Adam delved or dug in the field. This shows that digging of the earth has been in vogue since the beginning of the earthly life for growing fruits and vegetables. The culture of flowers was taken up at a later period when man had advanced in taste.
The growing of fruits and vegetables was a necessity. In the beginning these supplied man’s food. That is, man lived on these. A garden of fruit trees or plants is commonly called an orchard. But one of vegetables or small plants is called a garden, as a vegetable garden, a tea garden etc. An enclosed place where flowers or other beautiful small plants are grown is always called a garden, as the Shalimar Garden. By a garden now a day we generally mean a plot of land where flowers and beautiful plants are grown.
From the time imm'emoria1 man has been paying special attention to the cultivation and planning of gardens. The Hanging Gardens of Babylon, the Kew Gardens of England are instances on this point. The botanical gardens everywhere prove man’s love of flowers and beautiful plants.
The Mughals were noted for their planning of gardens. During their reign there was no important place without its garden or gardens. It is said that Feroz Shah Tughlaq alone got twelve hundred gardens prepared in the neighborhood of Delhi.
Gardening is a hobby with many. They find pleasure in undertaking labor for the plants which they treat as their near and clears ones. The story of Shakuntala’s love for her plants may be cited here. Tahari the flower plants she nourished were as dear as her own begotten children. When she was leaving for her husband’s place, she was feeling very keenly for her plants. She requested her friends to show motherly care and affection for them in her absence.
A garden is the most beautiful place on this earth, and a man who lives in a garden lives paradise, for he lives surrounded with beautiful things.


The dowry system has been in practice in Pakistan from time immemorial. Now it has become a curse. It poses a challenge which seems difficult to meet. The demand for the dowry became most essential condition of the marriage settlement. Middle class people became the main target of the attack.
Though Pakistan has a host of social problems to tackle today, yet the biggest-which the country is facing, is dowry. Today we fix dowry rates for boys of different categories doctors, engineers, lecturers, business men, executives. Merit of the girl has nothing to do in the settlement of the marriage proposal. We generally see that ordinary parents find it difficult to select a boy, well-settled in life, for their girl who is well qualified and well-versed with household activities.
Now a day’s marriage is a game of dowry hunters, Marriage, which is something sacred, should be made as simple as possible. It would not be out of place to mention one of the sayings of the Holy Prophet (SAWW: Peace be upon him), “The best marriage is that upon which the least trouble and expense is bestowed.” It is sad that we have departed from the teachings of the Messenger of Allah.
The dowry system has given birth too many evils. Many parents incur huge debts in order to give dowries to their daughters. They work hard during the rest of their lives to pay off the debts. Others do not hesitate to earn money by unfair means to meet the demand of dowry. The devil of dowry has put an end to the happiness of many couples even after marriage. Many young married girls commit suicide when they find their domestic embittered by the daily taunts of their mothers-in-law. That is not all. There are other evils too.
The social evil of dowry system attracted the attention of the government in the recent past. Dowry was restricted to a limited amount. Number of guests was also restricted and they were to be served with cold drinks only. But it received no support of the people and the administration also did not take it up very seriously.
The dowry system has been eating into the vitals of the society. The rich as well as the poor are now suffering more or less similarly from this social curse. Steps may be taken to make all realize the hollowness of the system and induce them to discard it altogether. Steps may also be taken to convince them about the futility of lavish expenditure for marriages. The press can do a lot in moldings the opinion of the people. The-students should come forward to fight this social evil.


Life today is governed by the offshoots of science. We have many new comforts of life that our forefathers did not possess. Should we jump to the conclusion that we are really happier than our forefathers were? It is a very puzzling question. Let us first see what kind of life they led.
The world of our forefathers was different from that of today. They lived in villages. Scientific inventions were not made. There were no planes, no cars, movie, radio etc. Television and telephones were not invented. There was no electricity so they were deprived of all those comforts which we now enjoy with the help of electricity. They moved in the jolting, slow-moving carts or carriages. The life was simple. They were engaged in tilling the soil for a living. They got their daily needs easily. They had plenty of every thing. There were many cool and sheltered spots for innocent pleasures. They took active part in all sorts of simple and innocent games. Contentment and happiness prevailed there.
In our modern age, life- is full of comforts and luxuries. We wonder how our forefathers lived without them. These are the blessings of science. We can travel in railways, ships, motor cars and airplanes. The old days of trouble and difficulties have come to an end. In every walk of life we have begun to use electricity. Medical science has done great service to man. Even the most serious diseases are cured very easily. When we are tired by the day’s hard work, radio and television provide us nice recreation. We have comfortable homes, fine schools, hospitals and many other amenities of life.
We still feel doubtful if we are really happier than our forefathers. Material civilization has, no doubt, made a wonderful stride but the moral development of man or moral values has been totally neglected. It has nothing to do with happiness, goodness, beauty, courage, adventure justice, friendship, love of family, love of country etc. All these values are necessary for a happy life. Scientific development has out-stripped our spiritual or moral progress. I am of opinion that a balance should be maintained. The existing condition without a masks our lives miserable with a horrible future.
We live in an age when men admire riches more than spiritual power, and long for luxury of the body than the peace of mind. This age of materialism will never be happy till men pay more attention to the old values taught by our forefathers. True happiness is a state of the mind, can better be attained in the cottage than in the king’s palace


By the terms superstition is meant an ignorant irrational belief in supernatural agency. We are thus said to the superstitious when we believe natural events to be caused by supernatural forces. Superstition dates back to the time when man began to be conscious about himself and his surrounding objects. That was practically the time- of ignorance for him. Events are taking place even to-day as they did then.
It is thus that the root cause of superstition is ignorance about the cause and its effect. As the former produces the latter, there must be a casual relation between them. But what the cause of an, event is surmised because we do not know what it exactly is, we are more often bound to blunder than not, the surmises indulged in tracing the causes of events led to the ancient superstitious beliefs and fear.
Examples of some of the superstitious beliefs are given below.
The out break of cholera and small-pox is-supposed to be due to the wrath of the goddesses; fortune and misfortune are supposed to be due to the good and evil influences respectively of the stars. Most people are caught with great fear while passing by a graveyard or cremation ground in the dark night; men suffering from derangement of the brain are said to be possessed by ghosts and women suffering similarly are said to be under the evil influence of jins.
There is again, another kind of superstitious which grow out of the weakness of human nature. The students, for example, are averse to taking eggs or bananas before going to the examination hall. The screeching of the owl and the groaning of the dog in the night are, likewise, treated as ominous. The number 13, in like manner, is regarded as a sign of misfortune in western countries.
It is said that ignorance is the mother of superstition as fear, its father. In other words, ignorance and fear, as has been illustrated sham give birth to superstitious. Education dispels both ignorance as an unreasonable fear. Hence, education and superstition are inversely related with each other, for the one increase, the other decreases. The more the world is becoming educated, the less is it becoming superstitious?
Belief in superstition is harmful, But it is not likely that the superstition will wholly go, for however educated, there will still be people weak at heart who, in times of their difficulties and misfortunes, will bow down to superstitious beliefs.


Man is a rational animal. He differs from the other animals by the possession of a quality called rationality. His rationality enables his to distinguish between right and wrong. That is, by virtue of this rationality he can know what is right and what is not. Man is, therefore, superior to animals. But his treatment towards them does not show him as such. He is superior to animals in knowledge. This knowledge, in which lies his power, has enabled him to make the animals subservient to him. So it is desirable that he should be kind and considerate to them.
Different kinds of animals serve us in different ways. The farmers cannot do anything without oxen. The cows and buffaloes give us milk which is the best of all the nutritious foods. The people who live in desert cannot do without camels because they are used for travelling and carrying loads.
The horse is another faithful animal. It draws carriages and carries load. In some countries it is even used in plough and the land. The dog is another faithful animal. It guards our house at night. It makes us alert about the thieves and any other danger. The people who live in barren areas where crops are not grown, rear sheep and goats for their earning. Of the wild animals, the elephant is used for riding and drawing heavy loads. Even the ferocious tigers, lions and bears are used to earn money for men. But do we show our gratefulness to them through kind treatment. The answer is a categorical No.
It is the children who are the unkind to the animals for the sake of their sport. They often treat cruelly with animals, specially the domestic animals, such as dogs, cats etc. They do not understand that what is sport to them is extreme torture or even death to others. The children should be made to understand that it is highly wrong to be unkind to animals.
The grown up people are no less cruel to the animals. They are often found to inflict inhuman cruelty to animals. The drivers of the bullock-carts and horse-carriages and the tillers of the soil are some of the living examples of inhuman cruelty to animals. These people are sometimes found to lash their bullocks and horses so cruelly that blood comes out of their bodies.
The animals are so serviceable to us. They cannot even protest because they are dumb. So we should always be kind and considerate to them.


History is a record of past. It relates the events the past. It is simply wonderful and amusing to look back into the past. Carlyle has rightly said “All that is stored in history is knowledge.”
History is a source of knowledge of the post. It not only tells us about the past but it also throws light on the present. One cannot understand his own country. Past heritage guides the future. The story of past heritage can only be obtained through the study of history. One cannot even understand one’s own personal prejudices and emotional reactions unless one is acquainted with the history of his own country and people.
History should be the basis of human education. Our knowledge shall always remain incomplete without the knowledge of history. One should know something of the past; social and political condition prevailing then in order to appreciate the works of that period. Without the knowledge of history one cannot claim himself properly educated either as a citizen or as an intellectual and imaginative being. Travelling too becomes fascinating and interesting if one possesses some historical knowledge.
The world of today is a comity of nations. Many nations are brought into close contact with each other. It is essential that each nation should know something about on another’s historical experience and goodwill. It is not necessary to go into detail about them, but at least the broad outlines of the social and political conditions, which have given to each nation its present character. Knowledge of history creates better understanding among nations.
Another great value of the history is that it informs us as how did the present state of things evolve out of the past? Through history we get some ideas about the origin of institutions, beliefs, habits and prejudices of the various people of the world. History throws light on the casual and evolutionary aspect of the history of mankind. It helps us to discover what life was like in various ages. It presents a truthful reconstruction of past state of society. History helps us to know about the achievements of man at different stages.
History kindles our imagination like literature. It gives poetic pleasure to the readers. The poets are much fascinated by the mysterious objects. The subject matter of a historian is also mysterious. When we read history we are lost in the mystery of the past.


Knowledge is power. This is true, when it is used for human welfare. Miseries and crimes may be the result of ignorance, but far more and worse are the effects of bad use of knowledge. Chemistry is a noble science. Should it be called harmful science if it is used to invent poison gases to be let loose on woman and children? It is a clear misuse of knowledge.
The man who knows has an advantage over the man who does not know. By his medical knowledge, the physician can cure disease and save his patient’s life. But the blackmailer, by his knowledge of some guilty secret, can bleed his victim white under the threat of disclosure. In this way the educated Classes have always been able to rule over the ignorant. During the middle Ages in Europe, the only educated men were the priests. The ruling classes very often could not even read and write. They had to appoint priest as their ministers and advisers. In the same way, and for the same reason, a handful of Europeans could control millions of African natives.
In the earliest history, the East predominated because of their superior knowledge. The Muslims were then the torch-bearer of knowledge. Europe was then sunk in barbarism. But with the beginning of the sixteenth century the West again became the leader of civilization. Western in fluence became dominant throughout the world. They established their colonies in Asian land African countries. South Asia remained 1 under the British control for more than a century. It was their superior knowledge and the weapons, organization and character which that knowledge had given them that made the white races superior to the East.
Lord Tennyson has rightly said“Knowledge comes but wisdom lingers” He means that science has provided us with a huge stock of knowledge but unfortunately it is not being put to right use. For example, Atomic power can be employed both for destructive and useful purposes. Its enormous potentialities to destroy life were demonstrated, when in August; 1945 two atom bombs were dropped on the Japanese cities, Hiroshima & Nagasaki. The devastation caused by them was unprecedented in the history of mankind. Of late, however, scientists have been concentrating as harnessing atomic energy for purposes of human? welfare. If we do not apply wisdom in the use knowledge, we shall miserably fail to achieve the desired object.
Physically, man is a comparatively weak animal. He cannot naturally run like the horses nor fly like the birds. He is no match in strength for the elephant, the lion or the
bear. He has no natural weapons of defence like the tiger’s fangs and claws. Yet he conquers all these strong and fierce beasts, and forces some of them to be his servants, It is his superior knowledge and intelligence that make him the master of creatures superior to him in physical strength.


Geographically Pakistan enjoys a unique position. She has common or neighboring boundaries with two world powers: China and the USSR. In the west, Pakistan has common borders with Afghanistan and Iran. They belong to a long chain of Muslim countries which crosses over from Asia into Africa. These countries with their predominantly Muslim populations, attach great importance to their relationship with Pakistan. Bharat lies on Pakistan’s eastern border. It is a vast country and to its east is another chain of Muslim countries. Bangladesh, Malaysia and Indonesia. This has placed Pakistan in an important geographical and political situation.
No country at the present time can afford to exist in isolation. From its very inception Pakistan has tried to maintain a friendly relation with her neighbours among her neighbours Afghanistan and Bharat with whom she has seldom enjoyed agreeable or consistently friendly relations. The attitude of Afghan rulers towards Pakistan has mostly been unfriendly. When Pakistan applied for U.N. membership in 1947, Afghanistan was the only country which opposed this application. A few years ago, a visible change had occurred in her attitude when Sardar Dawood had headed the Afghanistan Government. Sardar Dawood visited Pakistan but before relations could improve, his Government was troppled in 1978. Thereafter two other governments fell, and Barbak Karmal came to power. What then happened, the Russian armed forces literally walked into Afghanistan. Pakistan’s stand is quite clear; she wants to establish friendly relations with Afghanistan and desires to settle all the disputes peacefully.
It is a bitter truth that Bharat has not so far accepted Pakistan from the core of her heart. She created problems for the newly born state from the very first day of its creation. Since beginning Bharat wanted to dismember Pakistan. She left no stone unturned to shatter its economy, Owing to these facts; relations between the two countries have seldom been cordial. She has waged war on Pakistan on three occasions. She conspired against us, staged a war and forced a surrender of East Pakistan in 1971. The Kashmir dispute could not be settled as yet due to the adamant attitude of Bharat. On the other hand, Pakistan always wanted to settle all the outstanding issues by Peaceful means.
Pakistan has enjoyed cordial relations with Iran since her independence. The two countries are partners in the Regional Co-operation for Development (R.C.D.) which has strengthened their relations still further. The third member of the R.C.D. is Turkey.
Pakistan has common frontiers with China on her northern borders. Abundant goodwill exists in Pakistan for China and she is considered a reliable and trustworthy friend. The Chinese also share the same sine feelings. Our relations with U.S.S.R. have improved considerable. Pakistan views with appreciation the assistance provided by the U.S.S.R. and the efforts made by her to explore oil and set up the steel Mill at Karachi.


Pakistan is a country of villages; the majority of Pakistanis are villagers. Villages differ in different parts of Pakistan for the people of Pakistan belong different races. But village life in some ways is much the same all over Pakistan.
The villagers are nearly all farmers. They till the soil, plough the fields, sow the seeds water the crops and reap the harvest. They are generally tenant of some zamindar, and pay him rent. And there are village mistri who mends plough and carts, a cobbler who makes and mends shoes, potters, blacksmiths, and carpenters all work at their shops. A Pakistani farmer leads a simple, peaceful and contented life. His wants are few, and his only wealth is a land. If the harvest is good, he rejoices, but when there is a draught, his crops fail and he runs into debt. A villager is industrious and hard-working. Village women are also very hardworking and help men in their daily work.
The villagers live in humble cottages. There are no melted roads in our villages. The village streets are narrow. The winding lanes are crowded with animals and playing
children. The houses are built quite close together and are often adjoined to one another.
A villager is very conservative. He knows no change. He is content with running in the old grooves. What was good for his ancestors contents him completely. He is a prey to various superstitious: that sap his vitality. Their social customs, though sometimes utterly absurd, die hard.
The village people have two opposite characteristics. They are simple, kind and generous. But they fall out with one another on the slightest cause. They sometimes get so much heated that in excitement commit murders. They can hardly be said to lead refined lives. They know no culture. It is because they are not educated.
As compared to the noise in towns, there is little social activity in our villages. The villagers are fond of manly sports. Wrestling matches are held at the time of normal exhibitions or fairs. In horse breeding areas, there are contests for horse races and tent-pegging; the village pond is also a centre of great activity. The villagers are fond of music. In N.W.F. Province the ‘Khattak’dance is very popular. The people of villages are also fond of mystic song. The people of Villages are very hospitable.
Every village has a primary school its own. The mosque also serves the purpose of school. Prosperous and enlightened villages have their high schools.
It is the bounded duty of all of us to improve the life of the villagers. Proper education should be given to them.
Medical facilities should be provided to them and the villagers should be taught to observe the laws of health. Co-operative credit societies should be established in the villages. In these and many other ways, life in a Pakistani village can he made better than what it is to-day.


Pakistan our sweet homeland. Pakistan had appeared on the world map in 1947 but after the Muslims had made enormous scarifies. No other nation, it may be pointed out, has achieved such a major political objective in such a short period. But the Muslims of sub-continent had to strive with great perseverance of life and property of achieve this goal.
Why I love Pakistan? It is not that Pakistan is a Muslim country. I love Pakistan because it is a hard-earned country where we are free to shape our own destiny. It gave us an identity as citizens of independent Islamic state. The Primary objective in creating Pakistan was to secure a separate territory where the Muslims could regulate their lives in accordance with the teachings of the Holy Quran and Sunnah. Pakistan is the citadel of Islam. It is the focal point of the Muslim countries. It is a matter of pride for me that I was born and brought up in this glorious country.
Freedom is a boon and slavery a curse. Had it been undivided India the Muslims could never enjoy the gifts. In Pakistan, we are free to shape our destiny according to our tradition and historical background. Here we are free in our political, social, religious and educational fields. All are equal in the eyes of law. The non-Muslims enjoy complete freedom of worship.
The people of Pakistan are known for their boldness, bravery, courage and dash. Pakistan has several groups, radical and linguistic but they are all integrated through Islamic brotherhood. Most of the people live in villages. The villagers are simple, frank and sincere people. They are hard working and produce food crops for us. The villagers are great lovers of Islam and feel a sense of pride in making great sacrifices for its cause. They have a great urge for helping one another.
Pakistan is a land of beauty with very fine resorts for excursion and sight-seeing. We have beautiful green valleys in the hills covered with blossoming flowers. Our Swat Valley reminds the European tourist of Switzerland. Gilgit is also a beautiful spot full with the wealth of natural scenery. We have high mountains with snow-covered peaks here. The K-2 peak is the second highest mountain in the world. Nature is so bountiful that it filled the bowels of the earth in Baluchistan with minerals and natural gas.
The Pakistanis are inspired with the spirit of true patriotism and are always eager to every sacrifice for their homeland. Since the making of Pakistan, they are feeling an urge of a new life and are making rapid advances in education and culture.


The name of my country is Pakistan. It came into being on the 14th August 1947. The Muslims of indo-Pakistan had make great sacrifices to achieve Pakistan. Karachi became the capital of Pakistan after independence. Quaid-e-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah assumed the office of the Governor General. But he did not live long and he died on the 11th September, 1948. The geographical position of Pakistan has given it an important position among the countries of South East and South West Asia. In the west, our neighbors are Afghanistan and Iran. Pakistan’s neighbor to the north is the People’s Republic of. China. Bharat lies on Pakistan’s eastern border. On the southern side of Pakistan spreads the Arabian is a country with a variety of land surface. We have also a variety of Pakistan. We have the hottest as well as the coldest spots of the world. In Pakistan we have some fine resorts for excursion and sight-seeing).
Pakistan appeared on the map of the world as an Islamic state. It was founded on an ideological basis. The Muslims desired a separate state because they wanted to live in
Accordance with their cultural values and Islamic laws. The establishment of an Islamic society was thus the main object for creating Pakistan. We are now meeting towards the establishment of a truly Islamic society.
Pakistan is basically an agricultural country. A great portion of population depends on agriculture. The ratio of urban population is very- low in Pakistan and most of the people live in of the population are illiterate. The present ratio of not more than 25%. The people living in villages are very simple and hard-working. Pakistan is very rapidly growing and its population is consisted of all – Muslims, Hindus, Christians, Paris etc, The Muslims are overwhelming majority. But people of other
Religions enjoy equal civil and political rights. Urdu is the national language of Pakistan, Sindhi, Pushto, Punjabi and Baluchi are the other important languages of Pakistan. The national dress of Pakistan is Shalwar-Kameez.
When Pakistan came into being, it had no resources. It was poor in all respects. But in course of time Pakistan made a great progress. Now we set up many industries in the country due to the efforts of-the people and the government. We are rich in natural resources. We have raw material for most of our industries. Wheat grows in abundance which is the staple food of the people.
Islamabad is the capital of Pakistan. Karachi, Lahore, Rawalpindi, Hyderabad, Multan, Sialkot are the other important cities of Pakistan. Karachi is the main suspect of Pakistan.


It is not at all important how essay are classified. Usually there are five types of essays. These are as under:
A narrative essay is concerned mainly with the narration of some events. It covers history, biography, a legend or story or any current event.
A descriptive essay consists of description of some natural object, animate or inanimate, some country, place or object of interest – as a library, a fort, a ship etc.
A reflective essay deals with the topics of abstract thing which can be felt like beauty, love, truthfulness, social or political topics, and philosophical or religious subjects.
In such a type of essay, the writer should substantiate his arguments by suitable references, parallel quotation, examples and quotation etc.
These deal with topics which are the result of thinking of the writer’s mind. It includes travel accounts where imaginative of the author has a part to play.


A great writer was once asked to give a few suggestions about how good composition could be written. He said,“The first and most important hint is to compose.” “What next?” asked his hearers? He replied, “Compose again.” “What more?” he was asked and he most emphatically said, “Compose once again.” So the habit of constant writing is the best and surest method of learning English composition.
The next point to remember is that the matter of composition can be got only by wide writing and careful observation of life. So experience of the world, a wide range of study and a habit of writing, form the tripod of perfect composition.


Think about the subject in hand for a few minutes and try to understand what it moans. As you think over it you will find ideas coming into your mind. As they come,
Jot them down briefly on -a piece of paper. Develop these ideas, making it neither too narrow nor too broad, nor allowing your thoughts to wander away from the point.
Prepare an outline for the essay by arranging the ideas you have selected in their proper order. If the outline is given, follow it up closely. Do not introduce matter not
Include in it.
An essay should always be subdivided into paragraphs. A paragraph should deal with one main subject at a time, and not with more than one.
The introduction must be very brief. It may consist of a single sentence or a very short paragraph. It must be relevant to the subject.
The conclusion should be as striking as the beginning. It should be short and natural.
Never use a word of which you do not understand the meaning. A word wrongly used.
Abstain from introducing hackneyed quotations from poetry, which add nothing to the force of the composition and are too stale to add anything to its attractiveness.
Attend to grammar, idioms and punctuation. Use simple words and short sentences.


The word “ESSAY” means attempt. So an-essay must always be the attempt of the writer to express his own thoughts, ideas and feelings.
The students must never forget that his essay must be an expression of his own mind. What the lyric is to poetry that the runny is in prose. In its own way an essay is as much a work of art as a picture is. Like a picture it must have unity of design, proportion of parts and consistency of coloring. If it does not possess the character of artistic unity, it is not a true essay.